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Biodiversity Intactness, Historical, Time Series, Global (v1.0)


The Biodiversity Intactness dataset shows global estimates of how land use pressures have affected biodiversity. Biodiversity intactness is estimated as a combination of two metrics: Abundance (the quantity of individuals) and Compositional Similarity (how similar the composition of species is to an intact baseline). The Biodiversity Intactness Index (BII) estimates how the average abundance of native terrestrial species in a region compares with their abundances before pronounced human impacts.

biodiversity, ecology, intactness, index, species, abundance, ecosystems, nature
Temporal Extent:
2017-01-01 to 2021-01-01
100 meters
Product Version:

Technical Description

The Biodiversity Intactness Index (BII) measures biodiversity change using abundance data on plants, fungi and animals worldwide. The Index shows how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human pressures such as land use change and intensification. Generated by Impact Observatory, in collaboration with Vizzuality, these datasets estimate terrestrial Biodiversity Intactness as 100-meter gridded maps for the years 2017-2020. Biodiversity Intactness data is based on the PREDICTS database of spatially referenced observations of biodiversity across 32,000 sites from over 750 studies.

Biodiversity intactness is estimated as a combination of two metrics: Abundance, the quantity of individuals, and Compositional Similarity, how similar the composition of species is to an intact baseline. Linear mixed effects models are fit to estimate the predictive capacity of spatial datasets of human pressures on each of these metrics and project results spatially across the globe. These methods, as well as comparisons to other leading datasets and guidance on interpreting results, are further explained in a methods white paper entitled “Global 100m Projections of Biodiversity Intactness for the years 2017-2020.” authored by Francis Gassert, Joe Mazzarello, Sam Hyde.

This dataset contains the following fields:

  • biointactness: The biodiversity intactness index for a location represented as a floating point value between 0 to 1. A score of 0 means that biodiversity is no longer intact. A score of 1 means that is entirely intact.